Diane Cotter
9 min readSep 17, 2023

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THE SCHEME … product + total immersion in fire service battalion — officers, suits, boots, institutions, science, advertising = the greatest deception ever. The Stratagem:

NFPA launched a new website to counter the IAFF lawsuit:

https://firefightergearsafety.org

THE SCHEME…

…began in the 60’s with 3M’s marketing and sales division. They needed to get their new product, AFFF, “into every firehouse in the nation”

Chapter 18, pages 163/164. See that name Bob Burford? He served for years on NFPA 11. This book delivers details of how the sales team worked to get their product into the civilian market. For that you need an org that every fire department bends the knee to. A standard by which every purchase order must adhere to. ~NFPA committee on foam.

https://apps.usfa.fema.gov/registry/summary

3M’ers originally, then over time the foam industry grew and all manufacturers entered the committee. There is no mechanism in the safety standards institution — the NFPA — to protect ANYONE from the products the NFPA standardizes.

My 3M / DuPont deep dives exposes the names and players — including Dr. Guy Tuves who was the 3M health officer, who was aware of the toxic health studies of PFOA on animals conducted by 3M. He was the health officer from Johns Hopkins, hired by 3M to assess toxicity of AFFF.

Dr Richard Tuves sat as the NFPA Foam Committee Chairperson. And kept his mouth shut about toxicity. Dr. Tuves was author of a textbook, “Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry,” which still is used at community colleges. He worked in US Naval Labs and developed firefighting foam among other USN needs.

3M and US Naval Labs worked hand in hand to develop the AFFF.

It’s all in Chapter 18 of Neil McKay’s book.

New breed of chemicals

The story behind the firefighting foam in question goes back to 1961 when Richard Tuve, a chemist at the Naval Research Lab, came across a 3M advertisement in a trade journal.

Tuve was trying to develop a better foam for fighting petroleum fires, always a danger on ships. At the time, the Navy used “protein foam,” a foul-smelling concoction made from hoofs, horns and other animal detritus.

Tuve tried all sorts of chemical combinations that didn’t work. 3M’s ad trumpeted a new breed of chemicals made by electrochemically combining fluorine and carbon atoms into a super strong bond.

https://www.startribune.com/3m-faces-next-pfas-hurdle-bellwether-cases-regarding-firefighting-foam/600211948/

https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1995/12/08/richard-l-tuve-dies/0bbdd05a-8e7c-4aa6-8018-b9fa4fa0e443/

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I wanted to prepare a similar opinion / connect-the-dots for the turnout gear. The playbook was already written, only the execution was needed. That was a piece of cake, I mean steak.

In preparation of how I believe Lion Gear infiltrated the fire service with perks and incentives I sought something public and came cross this from 2014:

EXCLUSIVE: Head of FDNY’s hazardous materials unit fined $7G fine for accepting gifts from contractor

https://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/exclusive-fdny-honcho-fined-7g-fine-accepting-gifts-contractor-article-1.1835670

The head of the FDNY’s hazardous materials unit found himself in quite a mess after he accepted steak dinners and other gifts from a company that supplies the department with gear.

I then ran a search to see if the officer served on NFPA. He did. But there are no mechanisms in NFPA to restrict voting of a member if conflicts of interest occur. Oh, they occur. More on that later.

https://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1891/1891_FAE_HAZ_DDMeetingAgenda_9_17.pdf

Concerns have also been raised of stacked voting or ‘not retuned votes’ in order to tip NFPA rulings of allies on a particular ruling.

But the New York incident would be eclipsed, when on November 20th, 2023 I found the Coup de Grace.. featuring Jim Reidy — From 2005.

Anyone in this business knows the decades of committee oversight Jim holds in the NFPA and his reach in the fire service teaching institutions.

He’ll be at FDIC 2024 teaching... PFAS and Our Bunker Gear…

Meetings out of NFPA committees do happen. The deadly truth was exposed by Kyle Bagenstose in 2017 when ‘the personal minutes’ of a NFPA foam dealer told everyone about the foam being PBT aka a death sentence in 2001. But that word never made it to firefighters. They hid that in committee:

But the name Zeigler kept scrolling by my eyes. James Zeigler. JP Zeigler, LLC writes a lot of ‘revisions’ for NFPA — ppe specifically.

From 2015: https://www.nfpa.org/Assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1994/1994_F2016_FAE-HAZ_FDmeetingagenda_1-15.pdf

Zeigler was a DuPont chemist — voting and working in NFPA as a ‘llc’ on NFPA… while, DuPont had additional representation and voting/alternates. But the big concern on James is what he actually did for DuPont.

https://www.linkedin.com/in/james-zeigler-78503115/

Oct 1992 — Jan 2011 · 18 yrs 4 mos

Of his 32 years with DuPont, Jim Zeigler has spent the past nineteen years working on chemical protective apparel materials. Located at the DuPont plant in Richmond, Va., he is the senior member of the market support and product development team for Tyvek® protective apparel and Tychem® chemical barrier fabrics.
Dr. Zeigler is the co-inventor of many of DuPont’s chemical protective apparel fabrics, including Tychem® 7500, Tychem® 9400, Tychem® BR, Tychem® LV, Tychem® 10,000, Tychem® TK and most recently, Tychem® ThermoPro.

Chairman of the chemical protection subcommittee of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee F23 on Protective Clothing and Equipment, Dr. Zeigler also sits on the on the National Fire Protective Association (NFPA) Technical Committee for Hazardous Materials Protective Clothing and Equipment and the Personal Protective Equipment Committee of the International Safety Equipment Association.
Dr. Zeigler has written numerous technical papers and articles and is a frequent contributor to leading industry publications. He has particular expertise in protective apparel technology, industry regulations and standards, and on matters involving weapons of mass destruction.

Did he know PFOA was/is in your turnout gear?

James P Zeigler is the patent holder for the composite chemical barrier: https://www.patentguru.com/inventor/martin-oscar-l

https://www.patentguru.com/inventor/zeigler-james-p

Dr. Zeigler is a DuPont chemist.. for the PPE made by the likes Haz Mat suits… medical ppe etc..

https://www.jems.com/operations/dupont-developing-multi-hazard/

Zeigler:

https://www.linkedin.com/in/james-zeigler-78503115/

Dr. Zeigler is a NFPA VOTING committee member who either votes as (M) manufacturer of DuPont, OR as (S) specialist under his LLC. Zeigler serves on NFPA 1971 and NFPA Standards for Haz Mat Suits. In 2011 he led discussion to evaluate certain toxic chemicals for haz mat ppe:

https://www.nfpa.org/Assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1994/FAE-HAZ_ROCMinutes_03-11.pdf

Log # 28 action was to Accept in Principle with revised text based on additional Task Group work since the proposal stage. In discussing evaluation of Toxic Industrial Chemicals, the following motion occurred:

Motion by Jim Zeigler, second by Ulf Nystrom to evaluate Toxic Industrial Chemicals acrylonitrile, ammonia and chlorine measured at a 1 hour break through-through time using ASTM F 739. Motion carried by hand vote of 13 in favor and 3 opposed.

No one in NFPA raised the concern of PFAS used in gear until 2016 when Diane Cotter’s firefighter husband was diagnosed with cancer. No one from DuPont — Lion — Honeywell — 3M.. not one.

Zeigler in NFPA through the years:

https://www.nfpa.org/Assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1992/1992_F2016_FAE-HAZ_FD_PIResponses.pdf

https://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1992/1992_A2017_FAE_HAZ_TIA_Log1428_Ballot.pdf

https://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1891/1891_FAE_HAZ_DDMeetingAgenda_9_17.pdf

https://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1971/1971-A2006-ROP.pdf

https://www.nfpa.org/Assets/files/AboutTheCodes/1976/ROCF1999-1991-1992-1976-1971.pdf

Imo, of all the bad actors in The Scheme, Lion Gear takes the cake. IMO the operative was to work in channels they could control. But, there would be occasions where Lion would slip up. When PPE Specialist Jeff Knobbe asked to see the Exponent Study/Dr. Chrostowski, Lion Gear would fly from Ohio to Northern Cali, show Jeff the study. While there Dr. Chrosowski would call in, tell Jeff not to worry as the PFAS was too big to go through his skin, it was like volleyballs and tennis balls. Sadly that’s the message the firefighters heard. But before the meeting in Northern Cali, Lion and the gang were up to this:

Still at it, Chrostowski would take on Peaslee. Check out Dr. Peaslee’s epic clapback when Chrostowski tried to disparage the professor ~ Can you say ‘haymaker’ !!

Horrifically, the largest slip up of all was John Granby, the VP of Lion Corporate Responsibility. He’d ask Chief Bobby Halton to join him in a effort to mess with Diane Cotter. Thankfully Bobby declined.

Listen in as the Editor in Chief of Fire Engineering tells the fire service he was approached to villainize me. Thank God for the righteous Bobby Halton:

https://www.fireengineering.com/hangouts/humpday-hangout-forever-chemicals/

https://www.iaff.org/wp-content/uploads/Fire_Fighter_Quarterly/FFQ-Winter-2020.pdf

The pledge is only for products of combustion. Not products of deception.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST….

Not until 2023 would ‘Conflicts of Interest’ as a new topic come up. Again, only brought up by she-whose-name-shall-not-be-spoken.

https://www.instagram.com/di_cotter/ and https://twitter.com/Di_Cotter

Q. Where is the oversight in the NFPA?

A. There is none. It is a self-policed mega ngo working on a ‘scouts honor’ system. See detailed actions of ‘conflicts-of-interest” by voting members of the NFPA:

NFPA 2021 FINANCIALS…. FOR a Non GOVERNMENT ORG THIS MACHINE IS A BEAST OF A MONEY MAKER.. CHECK OUT THE SALARY OF THE CEO JAMES PAULEY.. HOLY HELL. over 1,000,000 A YEAR !! AND — NFPA, RAKES IN OVER 70,000,000 A YEAR IN MEMBERSHIP FEES AND MERCHANDISE… ASSETTS IN EXCESS OF 300,000,000 ~ not bad for a non — profit machine !!!

Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Market size was valued at US$ 1.81 Bn. in 2022 and the total revenue is expected to grow at 4.9% through 2023 to 2029, reaching nearly US$ 2.53 Bn. by 2029

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Diane Cotter

A very private individual who fell into a very public rabbit hole of epic proportions. I call it the #greatestdeceptionever - really, EVER.